Mixing Cultures

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Global Identities

Third Culture Kids and Hybrid Cultures (Ryo, 2013)

Today we look at the word differently. Perhaps, this is to do with hybridity. I will deliver my findings and understanding on Hybrid culture and merge identity.

From the blog New Narratives (2011) Tony Sandset wrote ‘English has hybrid elements in that we often “steal” words from other languages and adapt them to our own, such as the Japanese words “sushi”.’

Further examples, books, video games and films as most of them are translated. Films are very hybrid as it can focus on a culture, language and a location. Such as Manga is known worldwide although it originates from Japan. Another example is Day of the Dead is originated from Mexico, but we can already tell that it is celebrated world wide, begins during Halloween and is part of a costume that can be represented through face paint.

Hybridity is expressed in various cultural contexts and in the in-between spaces of arts, media, science and technology. This text was published at https://isea2011.sabanciuniv.edu/panel/hybrid-cultures.

On the other hand, hybrid identity; a fusion of cultures, for example being British African- a mix of British and African. It is the future of accepting hybrid identity and has become a ‘norm’. In brief globalisation had a various reasons of allowing the hybrid identity to develop. As well as colonising can be seen as a development for hybrid identity and culture.  Something to consider as well is currencies Europe has many independent countries. But, more and more year later countries started to develop and connect their currencies to euros as this shows ‘globalisation’ and ‘hybrid economy’.

Further more food, language are most likely hybrid, extremely evident in fast food such as  ‘ McDonalds’. In addition language adapt from one another, becoming a mixture of different hybrid language. For example English language makes up over 146 languages, think about the Greek terms for medicine.


McDonald’s Menu Items From Around The World (David, K. 2011)

We can see that the past and present has impacted a lot to the future for children on hybridity.  Self-educating by just communicating to their friends “Where are you from?”. But why not ask “Are you local?”.

This is something to look at further, childhood take on hybridity, each different generation. The topics on hybridity are wide and need to be researched closely, as the present is increasing with hybridity, globalisation, identity and culture. It would be interesting to know how the world would be in ten year time, when hybridity is already marking history.


Sandset, T.  ‘Hybrid Identity: Dictionaries, Identities and “Are we all hybrids”?’ Some Thoughts on Hybrid Identity. (2011). New Narratives.  Available at: https://newnarratives.wordpress.com/issue-1-hybrid-identity/some-thoughts-on-hybrid-identity/ (Accessed on: 24 October 2017)

Available at: https://isea2011.sabanciuniv.edu/panel/hybrid-cultures ,. 2011 (Accessed on: 24 October 2017)


Ryo, (2013). Third Culture Kids and Hybrid Cultures . Available at: http://skeptikai.com/2013/08/19/third-culture-kids-and-hybrid-cultures/ (Accessed on: 24 October 2017)

David, K.  (2011). McDonald’s Menu Items From Around The World. Available at: http://mentalfloss.com/article/28290/mcdonalds-menu-items-around-world (Accessed on: 24 October 2017)




London’s Identity

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Global Identities

Prior to my class presentation on ‘National Identity’ I discovered what I wouldn’t even think of when am in London everyday. And because London has vast of cultures around each town, I figured out to my self that even if London has a diverse culture, there’s also and always be an identity of London. Such as the theme colours around the central: crimson, royal blue and white, we can notice these colour themes on the British flag.


The reason I have chosen to base my presentation on these images is my way of describing ‘National Identity’. I didn’t want to look at a town corner that is specifically ‘Asian’ or ‘Eastern European’. I wanted to dig deeper of finding London’s identity and it was right in front of me all this time.

What I want to discuss is Identity and London is the right place for me to write about. Anderson defines the nation as, “an imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign…It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion” (Greenfeld, L., 2012) noted the ‘Benedict Anderson’.

This was a fascinating find, lets look at the image below. This is an example of communities in London, it represents communities shown by a spoken  ‘second language’. You can see how the Identities are spread over London and producing a community. This just shows to me that even if am in London everyday I can not see the division of these languages as its almost all areas of London are spoken English and this is just to show what Anderson wrote.



Here are some recommended books on National Identity:

  • Invasion of Tradition (1983)
  • Imagined Communities (1983)
  • Banal Nationalism (1995)
  • National Belonging and Everyday Life (2011)



Greenfeld, L. (2012) Benedict Anderson, Nationalism Studies.  Available at: https://nationalismstudies.wordpress.com/2012/10/24/benedict-anderson/  (Accessed on 7 October 2017)


solo-veo-la-oscuridad-blog (2012). Hellane. Available at: http://solo-veo-la-oscuridad-blog.tumblr.com/post/38323061162/que-es-la-vida-si-no-sonries (Accessed: 7 October 2017)

Telegraph reporter (2015). A row broke out on the Tube. Available at: www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/road-and-rail-transport/11827460/All-night-Tube-service-launch-deferred-London-Underground-say.html (Accessed on: 7 October 2017)

Brown, T (2010). An Old English Post Box. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/letscommunicate/5139389896 (Accessed on: 7 October 2017)

London-in-my-heart (2013). London Love. Available at: http://london-in-my-heart.tumblr.com/post/32331340624 (Accessed on: 7 October 2017

Piangerelli, E. (2017). Guida alla metropolitana di Londra. Available at: http://www.thatsalltrends.com/travel/guida-alla-metropolitana-londra/ (Accessed on: 7 October 2017)

James (2016). Greetings from London. Available at:http://mappinglondon.co.uk/2016/greetings-from-london/ (Accessed on: 7 October 2017)


Globalisation; a world of ‘Connectivity’

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Global Identities

According to (Robertson, R., 1992.) The use of the noun ‘Globalisation’ has developed quite recently. Certainty in academic circles it was not recognised as a significant concept, in spite of diffuse and intermitted usage prior to that, until the early, or even middle, 1980s.

After reading the journal it gave me some thoughts on the everyday culture, I have included some examples to summarise globalisation what it means to me.

We all travelled or have purchased food, right? So lets use this as an example.

Back in time before war has began, globalisation was limited, where most people bought their groceries in a local market where it was fresh and locally made. But now our choices have differed of our choices to shop at a superstore and trust packaged consumption. Our population has grown and so has our consumption.

Globalisation is complex but it has build our futures and allowed new doors to be open.

Everything is available to us and the ‘connectivity’ to getting the things we desire and needs are available to us. Such like transporting products for example fruits from Spain, Clothing are  produced in Bangladesh allows the clothing to be cheap. Its a Globally connected world.

Globalisation has boosted not just identity but economically, politically and communicational specially cultural over the years. Its a huge roll in todays culture and lives. Most of us are relying on globalisation today because of jobs, currencies and many more reasons.

In the review of (Santos, B.D.S., 2012) At the beginning of the eighties, Fröbel, Heinrichs and Kreye (1980) were probably the first to speak of the emergence of a new international division of labour, based on the globalisation of production, which had been accomplished by the multinational companies, gradually converted into central actors in the new world economy.

Although, it may seem that globalisation has become a great things, there are also bad things I haven’t included and that you should know about which is that it changed ‘Identity’. Many know cities are having the same identity like New York and Hong Kong, most of the aesthetics are the same expect the language but with globalisation speaking English would not be a problem as English is spoken globally.


Robertson, R., 1992. Globalization: Social theory and global culture (Vol. 16). Sage.

Available at: hl=en&lr=&id=eVMmonrrZDkC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=karl+marx+on+globalisation&ots=KY3j2P6cxm&sig=fQVXeZDL_2EVAv1gr5aVMK3DLK0#v=onepage&q&f=false            (Accessed on: 2 October 2017)

Santos, B.D.S., 2002. The processes of globalisation. Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais and Eurozine, p.71.  

Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6ee9/5978a4ae2d84c94a3d5a0c7022aa367c0687.pdf  (Accessed on: 2 October, 2017) 



The City and Its Fragments

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Urban Imaginaries


The city is build with each individual blueprint, and individual perspective of the design.

We read the city through post cards, personal experience, television and are imbedded with this imagination of the city in our brains. We communicated clearly of what it is as if we been there, without being there. Its easy for us to tell about a place for example Florence, Italy. It is know to be very artistic and this perspective will stick to my memories and imagines that that’s what it is; artistic.

People who are far away from the main and capital cities have an imagined perspective of the city that are beliefs.

Places in the city can be considered as stories overlapping, it is always  different wo will walk in the streets. How do we describe a city to a resident and how do we describe a city to a new residence? Differently of course it has different experience, its where they come from and how they adapt to a new city life. Commuting  to London almost everyday can be used more to explore the city and its hidden gems. My daily routine have been adapted to my memory and I can travel to places by memory. It would be different for a tourist who visits the city for the first time by trying to figure out the city.

London is a busy city, with not much space for new things to be build and already has meanings within a city, comparing to what it must have been 100 years ago, it wold have a different urban perspective and the fragments. The fragments of the London underground can me an imaginary confusion to a tourist and comparing to how adaptive everyday commuters.





Empty Billboards

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Advertising and The City


Advertising, public space, cities, the spectacle, spatial mapping

Consider removing advertisement in the city of London what affect would it have on people? My guess none or boredom specially when we look at the advertisement underground. I mean it could have some value to us or none. Even when we wait for the train underground we are given advertisement.

We usually try and avoid contact with the eye with a stranger in the tube and avert our eyes on the advertisement, consequently alerting with holidays and money, that’s everyone’s dream?


Entertainment advertisement through the underground escalator. The moment when it captures most people who wait to go up or down.  Its pretty much a genius way to advertise . I am amazed how much advertisement we see each day in the city and below the city.

Image London without advertisement, we possibly can because we are connected to it and it has become an everyday life to see advertisement, if we miss out on television, newspaper their be advertised within the city for us to see.

When I think about advertisements  that I see everyday around  the city, I lost count already. Numerous famous established companies imbedded in the advertisement paper, waiting for us to see.

There are some places within the city where advertisement should be restricted. To what extent has advertisement has become today that it need to ruin the aesthetic in taxis and buses.



flickr.com. tomgianfrancesco. Empty Billboards

Down the Tube




Under the Influence

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Recuperation, Advertising and Branding

Lets go back to May 1968, France.

When the Situationist International influenced students and workers to revolt.


Situationist are known for their political theory. Their work included dramatic poster advertisement in which the text send a message. Although they considered them selves non artistic but a political group.  The concept behind the Situationist that they have described what the have seen of capitalism such concepts as Détournment and Recuperation.

Equally Détournement has been show in many famous fine art piece and manipulated into a new meaning. It has lost its original sense. Mockery and irony are used to reproduce art.


Similarly Recuperation has been used in advertisement and branding. Rebellion, feminism and art are the main gestures in Recuperation.

Advertisement uses rebellion to convey a certain subculture making the class differences and the aim of the consumer. We have seen it all. Brands have this culture slash, communicating differently to each set customer.

Recuperation: Feminism is used globally it is discoursed within advertisement and branding. Such as to this day we see more than ever women advertised as motivation to consume. Although it has improved and it gives feedback such as the right image bellow, someone’s expression on the advertisement went unnoticed.

Recuperation: Art

“Marcel Duchamp’s ‘Fountain’ (1917), like Mona Lisa painting before it, started life as an ‘interruption’ or a ‘Détournement’. This work became  famous due to its ‘recuperation’ as art within the art industry” Matthew de Kersaint Giraudeau (2016)







The Missing Masses: Things and Their Value.

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Why do we consume unnecessary ‘thing’? Without realising it. We have been growing up in mass production and fast fashion that buying things is a norm. It make us happy.

In a society that shopping is a hobby and we become emotional satisfied.


‘Things’ within culture can represent different things. Specially within airports we have to follow the ‘snake’ line to board, we are assigned to follow these ‘rules’ and now they have become a norm. For example in Bruno Labour book: The missing masses, 10. He has discusses how the ‘seat belt’ needs to be put on before starting the car as it starts beeping the second the car is on.

‘ Things’ within design can have good and bad representation, things that we value such as a chair, what aesthetics it has and the different style of use, these options are designed for the consumer use, their purpose of the chairs value.

The law of ‘things’ gives us order and we follow it, ‘pay here’ for example is a law and it has been marked for us to follow. We go to the pay section without realising it, an what if there’s another way for it, lets imagine that the clothing shops have a self checkout section, would that be braking law?

How can we prove change of value though ‘things’ ?

In brief, there has been a wide change of ‘ things’ being made into more sustainable way.  Many of them are luxurious and unaffordable, as time and thoughts went into the product such as hemp fabric. We mostly don’t look at the material we are focused on the aesthetic of the product. As this creates cheap and short-lasting material which makes us buy more things.



Image: https://hannamade.wordpress.com/tag/craftivist-collective/




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While visiting Paris I have taken a few images of ‘birds eye view’, this project was more based in London but the opportunity came, in which I was going to Paris and decided to base my Panorama in Paris. Where it showed different perspective of the city road differences.

Two different building and perspectives of Paris and its differences in space, the Centre Pomidou image was taken on the highest level of the centre. The view has given a glace from the left of the Eifel Tower and from the right Sacré-Cœur cathedral.

Below is and image taken from Centre Pompidou.


Below is an image from the roof at Institut du Monde Arabe.


Up / Down View

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The very first view of London was from Bankside by Wenceslaus Holler, 1647.


It is hard to imagine our world without ‘Bird’s-Eye view or any view at all, of the city.  We have many sources to have a view of the city in London such as the Sky Garden, the Shard, and much more. So in the 21st Century we have more options such as penthouses views and it has become a norm for us to know what the city looks up and down view. Most of us know how London look above because of the images on the internet and personal experience seeing it.

I feel like we all have desired to view a town up high?

But one important man that influences us all was Philippe Petit who walked the World Trade Centre on the 7 August 1974. Who is also an author of many books, ‘The Walk’.philippe_petit_tightrope_midway-xlarge

The Walk 1974

Lets look at Lucinda Grange who is a British photographer overcome fears and rebelled to show how increasable the city form the top can be seen, Chrysler Building photograph.


Lucinda Grange Photography 2016

There are many ways of seeing the city up high, there are buildings that are reaching to the sky and promising and delivering the best views of the city. The shard and the Sky Garden gives the best views in London, therefore booking is required! Paris also has breath-taking views which can be seen from Eifel Tower.  These are now there for visitors around the world to see views of the city. I wonder what it will be in 50  years time, will be have hair-raising beautiful views around the world?

Can Culture Be Defined?

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Culture covers a broad range of definition. But what does it mean to me?

Culture is formed with different culture within the one word and its what we create it to be. Our ideology is created with culture, we are culture, we use culture. We have changed culture within years the late 90s culture and the 21st culture the century of technology. We changed culture as we grow and interoperate new rules with it, our values towards culture defines who we are. culture-is-the-way.png

Are we defining culture due to our past, experience or our belief. We know what culture is by being told. But what is culture to you?

Throughout  CTS class we have explored culture, through theorist such as Adorno, Leavis and Arnold, Hoggard and Williams. What we have learned is that culture can be good and bad, we value culture in a certain role because its the way we were raised.

Culture is only defined by what we believe it is, as culture is changing, the tradition, relationship, value, thought and practice. The individual definition of culture is

According to O’Neil, D. (2006). The word culture has many different meanings.  For some it refers to an appreciation of good literature, music, art, and food.  For a biologist, it is likely to be a colony of bacteria or other microorganisms growing in a nutrient medium in a laboratory Petri dish.  However, for anthropologists and other behavioural scientists, culture is the full range of learned human behaviour patterns.



Image:  Available at: http://socialated.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/culture-is-the-way.png (Accessed on 4 December 2016)

O’Neil, D. What is Culture? (2006) Available at: http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_1.htm (Accessed on  4 December 2016)